Discuss the Theory of Evolutionary Preparedness and How It May Apply to Specific Phobia, Social Phobia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
With diseases like heart disease, high blood pressure, and cancer, both hereditary and environmental factors play a role.
While doing this he noted two things. Firstly, that the dogs would often begin to salivate prior to the presentation of food and, secondly, that this was a non-conscious behaviour. He quickly realized that salivation was no longer due to an automatic, physiological process. Pavlov then investigated how these conditioned responses were learned. Through a series of experiments, he set out to provoke a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus. He selected food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), a stimulus that naturally and automatically evokes a response. The ticking sound of a metronome was chosen to be the neutral stimulus. First he exposed the dogs to the sound of the metronome, then immediately presented the food. After undertaking several trials, Pavlov recorded that the dogs began to salivate upon hearing the metronome. Therefore, the previously neutral stimulus, the metronome, had become a conditioned stimulus (CS) that then provoked the conditioned response (CR), salivation. Pavlov’s findings were based upon trials with animal subjects and assumed that the conditioning of fear and phobias followed a similar process in both animals and humans. Thus, neutral stimuli could be conditioned similarly in both animals and humans.
While we discuss both constructs, our primary focus is on uncertainty, which is inextricably linked to the phenomenological experience of anxiety arising from unpredictable future events.
With their addition to the DSM, it is hoped that they will be better researched, understood, and treated.
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