Derrida, Brault, and Naas (1994) Asserted a Philosophy of Psychoanalysis That Claims “Madness” Is Not Necessarily a Disease, but a Cognitive Process Lacking Reason
By means of the fine distinctions Derrida makes in this analytical reading, particularly of The Interpretation of Dreams, he opens up the realm of analysis into new and unpredictable forms—such as meeting with an interdiction (when taking an analysis further is "forbidden" by a structural limit). Following the essay that might be dubbed Derrida's "return to Freud," the next is devoted to Lacan, the figure for whom that phrase was something of a slogan. In this essay and the next, on Foucault, Derrida reencounters two thinkers to whom he had earlier devoted important essays, which precipitated stormy discussions and numerous divisions within the intellectual milieus influenced by their writings. In this essay, which skillfully integrates the concept of resistance into larger questions, Derrida asks in effect: What is the origin and nature of the text that constitutes Lacanian psychoanalysis, considering its existence as an archive, as teachings, as seminars, transcripts, quotations, etc.?
Foucault’s response, in the “My body, this paper,this fire” appendix and in a somewhat acerbic “Reply to Derrida” paper, also published in1972 in the journal Paideia, initiates a rancorous disagreement between the two. Derrida reports in his later “To Do Justice to Freud” paper of 1992 that they did not speak to each other from 1972 until 1982 when Derrida was released from a Czech prison. Jean Khalfa says that what is at stake in the debate is the rejection, in Foucault’s book, “of a particularconception of philosophy as irreducible to the material circumstances of its production.” Derrida’s “Cogito and the History of Madness” (1963 and 1967) reasserts this conception of philosophy by focusing on, and finding a flaw in, Foucault’s brief treatment of howRene Descartes separates reason from madness. In Derrida’s reading, Descartes does not separate reason from madness, but rather uses madness in the guise of hyperbole or excessto provide impetus to thought (Derrida, Jacques, 1994).
Derrida, Jacques, Pascale-Anne Brault and Michael Naas. (1994). "To do justice to freud, The history of madness inthe age of psychoanalysis. Critical Inquiry, 20 (2), 227-266.
Descartes, René, David Weissman, and William Theodore Bluhm. 1996. Discourse on the method and, Meditationson first philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Foucault, Michel. 2006. History of madness. London: Routledge