Obesity and Older Men
Disclaimer.The materials on this page are intended for informational and educational purposes. No individuals should use the information, resources or tools contained herein to self-diagnosis or self-treat any health-related condition. The content of the website is not meant to be a substitute for advice provided by a doctor or other qualified health care professional. The company will not be held responsible for any negative consequences arising from the use of information posted on this site.
Therefore, both FFM and fat mass decrease during old age (>70 y). Aging is also associated with a redistribution of both body fat and FFM. With aging there is a greater relative increase in intraabdominal fat than in subcutaneous or total body fat, and there is a greater relative decrease in peripheral than in central FFM because of the loss of skeletal muscle. In addition, increases in intramuscular and intrahepatic fat in older persons are associated with insulin resistance. Obesity is defined as an unhealthy excess of body fat, which increases the risk of medical illness and premature mortality. However, it is difficult to accurately measure body fat mass in most clinical settings, because this assessment requires the use of sophisticated technologies that are not readily available. Therefore, BMI, calculated as body weight (in kg) divided by the square of height (in m), has been widely used and accepted as a simple method to classify medical risk by weight status. In older adults, age-related changes in body composition (ie, decreases in FFM and increases in fat mass) and loss of height caused by compression of vertebral bodies and kyphosis (posterior convex angulation of the spine) alter the relation between BMI and percentage body fat. Therefore, at any given BMI value, changes in body composition would tend to underestimate fatness, whereas the loss of height would tend to overestimate fatness. Although it has been suggested that the use of alternative methods to estimate height, such as knee height or arm span, may provide more reliable estimates of BMI, these approaches have not been adequately validated. Another limitation of using BMI to estimate disease risk is the effect of aging on fat distribution. Visceral fat (omental and mesenteric adipose tissue), subcutaneous abdominal fat, intramuscular fat, and intrahepatic fat, which are risk factors for insulin resistance and metabolic diseases, increase with aging. Therefore, the size of these depots is likely greater in older than in young adults at any given BMI value.
In those 65 years of age and older, hormonal changes that occur during aging may cause the accumulation of fat. Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone secretions, reduced responsiveness to thyroid hormone, decline in serum testosterone, and resistance to leptin. Resistance to leptin could cause a decreased ability to regulate appetite downward (Villareal et al., 2005). Genetic, environmental and social, as well as several other factors can all contribute to obesity.
Additionally, it is a marker of poor outcomes for most interventions for chronic conditions and interferes with management of most chronic diseases in older adults.
Vainio, H., & Bianchini, F (Eds.).(2002). IARC handbooks of cancer prevention Vol. 6: Weight control and physical activity. Lyon, France: IARC Press.
Villareal, D., Apovian, C., Kushner, R., & Klein, S. (2005). Obesity in older adults: technical Review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,82(5), 923-934. Retrieved October 19, 2008
Yan, L.L, Daviglus, M.L., Liu, K., Pirzada, A., Garside, D.B., Schiffer, L., et al. (2004). Body mass index and health-related quality of life in adults 65 years and older. Obesity Research, 12, 69-76.
Zerah, F., Harf, A., Perlemuter, L., Lorino, H., Lorino, A., & Atlan, G. (1993). Effects of obesity on respiratory resistance. Chest, 103, 1470-1476.